University of Minnesota
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MICaB Faculty

Walter C. Low
Walter C. Low, Ph.D.


Department of Neurosurgery

Michigan, 1979, Ph.D.

612-626-9200 - office

Research Interests:

Brain and tumor immunology and development of cancer vaccines

My laboratory is focused on the study of brain tumors. Primary tumors that originate in the brain represent some of the most malignant types of cancers. Patients diagnosed with grade IV glioblastoma multiforme have a mean survival time of 11 months after diagnosis. Our studies of brain tumors have emphasized the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors. Cancer vaccines consisting of cytokines and tumor antigens are used to stimulate cells of the immune system to recognize and destroy tumors within the brain.

Selected Recent Publications:

  • Jean, WC, SR Spellman, MA Wallenfriedman, WA Hall, and WC Low, Interleukin-12 based immunotherapy against rat 9L glioma. Neurosurgery 42: 850-856, 1998.
  • Wallenfriedman, MA, JA Conrad, L DelaBarre, PC Graupman, G Lee, M Garwood, DS Gregerson, WC Jean, WA Hall, and WC Low, Effects of continuous localized infusion of granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and inoculations of irradiated glioma cells on tumor regression, Journal of Neurosurgery 90:1064-1071, 1999.
  • Ni, H.T., S.R. Spellman, W.C. Jean, W.A. Hall, and W.C. Low, Immunization with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor extract increases survival of mice bearing intracranial gliomas, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 51:1-9 (2001).
  • Wu AH and WC Low, Molecular cloning of the rat IL-13 alpha 2 receptor cDNA and its expression in rat tissues, Journal of Neuro-Oncology 59:99-105 (2002). Abstract
  • Wu AH and WC Low, Molecular cloning and Identification of the human interleukin 13 alpha 2 receptor (IL-13Ra2) promoter, Neuro-Oncology 5:179-187 (2003). Abstract
  • Jean, WC, SR Spellman, MA Wallenfriedman, WA Hall, and WC Low, Effects of combined granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-2, and interleukin-12 based immunotherapy against intracranial glioma in the rat, Journal of Neuro-Oncology 66:39-49 (2004). Abstract
  • Wu AH, WA Hall, and WC Low, Identification of HLA a*0201 glioblastoma multiforme cell lines for  immunotherapy by PCR-SSP and DNA sequencing, Journal of Neuro-Oncology 66:1-8 (2004). Abstract
  • Wu AH, J Xiao, L. Anker, WA Hall, DS Gregerson, WK Cavenee, W Chen, and WC Low, Identification of EGFRvIII-derived epitopes restricted by HLA A0201 for dendritic cell based immunotherapy of gliomas,  Journal of Neuro-Oncology (e-pub ahead of print, Sept. 2, 2005). Abstract
  • Ohlfest JR, Demorest ZL, Motooka Y, Vengco I, Oh S, Chen E, Scappaticci FA, Saplis RJ, Ekker SC, Low WC, Freese AB, and Largaespada DA. Combinatorial antiangiogenic gene therapy by nonviral gene transfer using the Sleeping Beauty transposon causes tumor regression and improves survival in mice bearing intracranial human glioblastoma. Molecular Therapy (e-pub ahead of print, Sept. 5,  2005). Abstract